Monday, September 30, 2019

Pros & Cons of Television Essay

For most people, watching television Is an enjoyable way to spend time. It Is an undemanding activity that passes the time and there are very few families that don’t own at least one television. Since so many people now own a television, there has been a proliferation in the number of channels available and shows to watch, so that you can quite easily find yourself spending hours in front to the television. Consequently, you may neglect other activities that need doing. Thus, although television may help to ease boredom. Here are also some negative aspects associated with watching television. Breaking news shown live on your TV Global news network allows the latest global events to be aired worldwide and beamed directly to your living room. Examples (from top-left, clockwise) include September 1 lath attack, 2004 Tsunami in Indonesia, 2008 HINDI outbreak and 2011 earthquake In Japan. Pros of watching television The positive aspects of watching television include that you have something to talk to friends and relatives about. There are certain programs which are more popular than there and If you watch them you feel Included and that you have something In common with the people around you. Television can help to foster a sense of national identity, since a significant proportion of the population will be exposed to the same kinds of news programs and television shows, so that people feel that they belong to a wider community. Plus, television can also be Informative and educational, opening people’s eyes up to the world outside. Educational TV programs Educational TV programs provide priceless information that not only educate but also pens up your mind. Most of these programs teach and educate people on subjects that you may otherwise will not know and are never taught in schools. Non-educational TV programs However, there are also a lot of television shows that are not very educational, and could even be considered trash. Reality shows, for Instance, offer nothing of any worth to the audience. Yet people still tune in. People get hooked on shows which are poorly produced and concentrate mostly on issues of sex and violence. Although here is no conclusive evidence that watching violence on television makes children tofu people would become desensitizing to it, and that this could make it easier for children to engage in violent activities. Watching too much TV can lead to weight gain, poor social skills and lower academic results Unsupervised children spending too much of their time in front of a TV can have a big impact on their life. Obesity, lack of social skills and poor academic results are Just some of the effects TV have on children. Some psychologist believe that too such TV time can have a major effect in the psychology of the child. Children are suppose to interact and play, not sit and watch. Poor parenting and weight gain It is also evident that many people spend too much time watching television, so that parent’s don’t bother to spend any time playing or talking with their children. It is far easier to stick them in front of the television, rather than taking them to the park. It can’t be a coincidence that so many people are now overweight when they spend much more time watching television than they would have done years ago. People seed to be a lot more active, but now television is the most convenient way for individuals to keep themselves occupied. Thus, they burn hardly any calories while most probably consuming an excessive amount of calories. It’s addictive Even though there are many negative aspects associated with watching television, many people enjoy television far too much to reduce the amount they watch or to avoid watching television altogether. People enjoy not having to think for themselves and to be able to sit down and watch something that helps them to relax, so why would they change?

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Executive Summary Social Networking Essay

Introduction We are at a time when customer satisfaction is at an all time low, yet it is becoming a more and more difficult to talk to a human for customer service. Many businesses have lost the personal and trust-filled relationship that is so desired by their clients. In order to maintain and grow a loyal customer base, a company can now achieve those real human connections by means of social networking. Individuals from all areas of the company are readily available to meet the diverse needs of its customers, future employees and each other. Social Networking is at the top of today’s technology and is being utilized by many companies. Our business purpose is to share business ideas and opportunities. This has become an effective tool to meet prospective leads, clients, efficient employees and business partners. [i] Social networking is an easy and cost effective way to make profitable business connections with people that you never knew existed. Recommendation ââ€" ª An advantage of Social Networking is to create new ways to communicate and share information about our company. Communication is a key to success in any business, and social networking is the best way to facilitate these successful interactions. ââ€" ª Social Networking ensures that our company is making new and successful connections. We are able to promote our company’s services on a more personal level.[ii] Both our customers and own employees can build a more trusting relationship through the ease of communication of a social network. Analysis Social Networking has always been an effective source of communication. It has become necessary to change they way we pursue our clients and employees. We want to manage more efficiently, hire the most qualified employees and locate potential clients. Our business has to be aware of not only what we communicate, but how we communicate. Society has changed they way we interact with one another. It use to be highly encouraged, by employers, to meet a potential client or future employee while playing golf, having lunch or maybe even dinner. You would provide your sales pitch, hand them a business card and follow back within the next few days to see if they were interested in your business or if you were interested in theirs. This was an approach to maintain a personal relationship and show your future client or future employee how available and interested you are. Social Networking has grown and we need to be aware of the way we connect and communicate. Communication is no longer just reaching a client or future employee. It is reaching millions of business connections that you never knew existed, through technology. Technology has allowed us to create social sites that can be used for networking your business, via the internet. I use to think social sites such as,, and were sites for younger people to socialize with their friends. After researching these sites, I found that these sites support much more than socializing amongst friends. It has become one of the most effective ways for businesses to communicate and build relationships with other business people and potential employees. Social networking has provided businesses with the following: business development or sales, raising business capital, professional development, getting job assistance with others in your company, recruiting board members, management of employees and social or personal reasons.[iii] Social Networking can add value to a company externally as well as internally. It can be a very powerful tool and when utilized properly we can learn from others as well as ourselves. There are many companies that have taken the idea of these social sites and utilized them internally. They are using social networking as marketing tool for growing their business. Social Networking is now essential professional competency for employees at all levels. Professionals need to know how to gain visibility and credibility in their target markets and how to build and maintain relationships for long-term growth. They need to develop strategic networking skills and practices to excel. It is the most important tool for intelligence gathering. In a business setting, such as conferences, meetings, and outings, people need to find the latest information on resources, trends and best practices. It is a critical strategy for business development. Employees can create a network of profiles and connect with one another. Enabling connections among employees, the company could easily establish virtual teams, bring new employees up to speed, improve collaboration and increase retention among people who hadn’t felt a strong sense of belonging.[iv] Social Networking is a method for personal retention because it creates feelings of inclusion and helps people from diverse backgrounds feel listened to and valued. Building up a network of diverse people is very helpful for any business. Contacts with different clusters or groups would help your possibility of greater opportunities. A closed group of contacts will not allow you this kind of exposure. Networking can help you with your contact list. This would then help you to expand your sales and social base. [v] It remains the primary technique that people use to find jobs, change careers or land on their feet after a layoff, merger, or reorganization.[vi] Through the company’s social network you can create a word-of-mouth marketing stream that reaches people you would never be able to reach on your own or other means. Experts can provide feedback or validation regarding your current ideas or help to create new ones. You can create an advisory board of business people that are regularly available to you and committed to the growth and success of your business. People are given the opportunity to brainstorm which allows you to get outside of the normal way of thinking and create new and innovative ways to grow your business. People in your social network can connect you with potential employees.[vii] Companies are communicating and connecting using external sites as a tool to check up on employees who are working for them or are a potential candidate. We want to make sure we are ahead of the game, the who’s who if you will. Potential employees seem to be younger and younger. They are not all exploiting the typical and to post their resumes or look for jobs anymore. They are developing personal sites with and, which are allowing a more personal view of a potential employee or client. More than one in five employers searches social networking sites to screen candidates. There are many areas of concern that can be researched on networking sites including: information about drug and alcohol use, inappropriate photos, poor communication skills, bad-mouthing of former employers or fellow employees, inaccurate qualifications, unprofessional screen names, notes showing links to criminal behavior, and confidential information about past employers. This is a very effective way to help determine whether a candidate should be hired. You want an employee that can show a professional image, solid references and are a well-rounded candidate in terms of their skills, accomplishments and overall fit for the company.[viii] Closing Social Networking is a smart and strategic way to keep our company connected and communicating both internally and externally. Remember the old saying, â€Å"It is not always what you know, but who you know† and social networking has been an effective tool that has allowed us to broaden our personal relationships with our customers, future employees and each other. Social Networking through technology will allow us to grow with endless possibilities. ———————– [i] Raj, N. A. (2008). For Entrepreneurs: Social Marketing Optimization. Retrieved November 1,2008, for Gaebler Ventures Website: [ii] Raj, N. A. (2008). For Entrepreneurs: Social Marketing Optimization. Retrieved November 1,2008, for Gaebler Ventures Website: [iii] Darling, D. (2003). The Networking Survival Guide Get the Success You Want by Tapping into the People You Know. New York, New York: McGraw-Hill. [iv] Brandel, Mary (2008). The new employee connection: Social networking behind the firewall. Retrieved October 25, 2008, for Computerworld Networking & Internet Website: [v] Sridhar, B.N (2008). The Importance of Networking in Business. Retrieved October 25, 2008, for Ezine@rticles Website: [vi] Baber, A. & Waymon, L. (2007). Make Your Contacts Count Networking Know-How for Business and Career Success. New York, New York: Amacom. [vii] Fisher, D. (2001). Professional Networking for Dummies. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc. [viii]Havenstein, H. (2008). One in five employers uses social networks in hiring process. Retrieved October 26, 2008, for Computerworld Networking & Internet Website:

Saturday, September 28, 2019

International Financial Manager Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

International Financial Manager - Essay Example Although IFMs are not really expert bankers however they could work in different roles across all of the business and support functions of the HSBC Group such as the Commercial Banking, Retail Banking and Wealth Management, Insurance, Global Private Banking, Risk Management, Global Banking and Markets, Audit and Operations. The International Financial Manager should be flexible since the financial assignments and projects are driven according to the business requirements. An IFM could be a fresh MBA or a management or finance professional seeking to take a next step in his or her career. As an IFM at HSBC, one should be able to: †¢Ã‚  Demonstrate leadership qualities.†¢Ã‚  Commit to the ongoing global mobility across the career path.†¢Ã‚  Develop a clear understanding of the challenges and opportunities related to the changing roles at regular intervals.†¢Ã‚  Make an immediate impact irrespective of the current level or status of the job.HSBC provides a highly com petitive remuneration package and benefits to its International Financial Managers that include: †¢Ã‚  The International Financial Managers at HSBC strive to encourage the potential business community all over the world to invest in their financial services and products.   In doing so, they need to show to the investors that the bank possesses adequate value of Owner’s Equity and retained earnings for funding in its future progress and that HSBC has been able to maintain its liabilitie. They should also focus on operation efficiency since it is the key factor.

Friday, September 27, 2019

The Transparency in Corporate Governance Essay

The Transparency in Corporate Governance - Essay Example Shareholders and investors are being defrauded and deceived on the real status of earning and expenses within the firm through financial statements that are not entirely accurate. Such failures of corporate governance have produced a negative impact on investor confidence and made them question the integrity of information that is provided in the financial statements of a corporate entity.1 The development of corporate governance codes has as its primary objective, the restoration and increase of investor confidence through increased accountability and transparency in corporations2. Effective corporate governance enhances investor confidence, enhances competitiveness and ultimately contributes to economic growth. Transparency in corporate governance implies a lack of opacity or secrecy in financial operations and is thus associated with full disclosure of financial and operational information. Transparency implies that there are no hidden agendas and that clear information is provided, not only on financial and operational aspects but also on the internal processes of management overseeing and control systems. It is on the basis of such complete disclosure of information that a meaningful analysis of the Company can be made and outside investors who put their money into an organization can understand its operations clearly and make good investment decisions. Transparency can therefore mitigate the risks associated with corporate governance and the potential for corporate scandals. In countries such as the USA and the UK, ownership of shares in corporations extends over a widespread shareholder base. This leaves scope for potential conflict, arising between the interests of the stakeholders in the corporation and the Boards of Directors who could allow their own self-interest to influence organizational decision-making.

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Procopius secret history Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Procopius secret history - Essay Example He was also on the Gothic campaign, in Italy, until 540. He finally lived in Constantinople after describing the immense plague of 542 in the capital. This paper will analyze the source and determine the author’s reliability (Arbor 1). The contemporary history reader should characteristically depend on the investigation of similar contemporary historians. Contemporary historians can access a large number of sources and frequently aim to give an impartial notion of the past life. Nonetheless, past historians did not appreciate objectivity in creating their stories on what would have been for contemporary figures and events (Arbor 1). There should be a balanced method to history and occurrences of the past life. Moreover, Procopius was the best placed historian to give information on the existence of Belisarius, Theodora, and Justinian of the eastern Roman Empire. This is because he published eight works on one of the most popular emperors, Justinian. He not only sets aside panegyrics, in the Secret History, but Procopius looks keenly into the revolt he experienced at his mighty empress and emperor (Arbor 1). Procopius illustrates the cruelty and greed of his emperor, in addition to the lasciviousness and malice of Theodora, his wife. The Secret History is under-supported and overstated, despite being an interesting resource. Early writers did not have the will to cite their resources. One cannot simply presume that because the author, Procopius, was Justinian’s contemporary, he was a witness of everything he documents. This raises a lot of concern on his reliability. Readers cannot ascertain what composition of his work is hearsay, or if it is rumor found in rumor, and the component of the resource that can be advanced. Nevertheless, the resource depicts both Justinian and Theodora as largely suspicious individuals (Arbor 1). Also, when Procopius asserts that Justinian was the most terrible ruler of all time, we are not sure how much

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Business Perpetuates Rather Than Reduces Inequality in the Society Essay

Business Perpetuates Rather Than Reduces Inequality in the Society - Essay Example This to a great extent has not been the case; in fact in many cases business has perpetuated inequality in the society. These inequalities are mainly manifested when it comes to the personnel in the business organization. The inequality comes in three major regimes; gender, class and race. This paper discusses how business increases inequality in the society rather than reducing it. Discussion First I will define the inequalities that occur in business organizations. As stated earlier the main ones are class, race and gender. Class refers to the differences in control over and access to the resources of the business organization. Class differences are manifested during employment and the wages that are paid. The hierarchies that may be created in organizations may create a wide gap between the top management of the business organization and the workers at the bottom. In large corporations the Chief executive officers sit at the top and wield more power than other workers in the busin ess. Such class difference might not be experienced in small businesses but still the owner or boss has class power over employees. Gender inequality is seen in the difference in beliefs of identities of men and women. Despite efforts to try to close the gender gap in business organizations, most top positions in organization management are still held by men while the low white collar positions like clerks and secretaries are dominantly held by women. Supervisory duties have always been assigned to men in many business organizations. This brings about gender inequality because men and women are not treated equally (Smith 2002). Race inequality comes about because of differences in physical characteristics, oppression, culture and historical domination justified by the underlying beliefs. Businesses owned by certain races in some cases discriminate other races when it comes to employment. They might fail completely to employ the other races or they may employ them and give them junio r positions. There are other differences that might be the base for inequality in business organizations. These include sexuality, religion, physical disability and age. Some business organizations may discriminate against the homosexuals when it comes to employment. There are also cases where certain religions have been discriminated in business organizations. These differences might be vital but they do not carry more weight like gender, race and class in creating inequality. The main intention of business organizations is to make profits (Banerjee 2012). The requirements that are placed for work ensure that the organization does realize profits. These requirements may cause inequality between genders and classes. In a business organization work is designed in favour of men who are totally dedicated to earn a living and do not have other responsibilities for family demands or children. Eight hours of continuous working, giving the work maximum attention, arrival on time and being able to work for extra hours if need arises are some of the general requirements for employees in business organizations. Since it is mostly the workers at the lower level who perform duties that are vital for the realization of profit for the business, it is not easy to relax these requirements for them. On the other hand, the top management may bend these rules for their members. A manager for the business organization may work in the organization on part time basis, may not be required to arrive early, he may also be undertaking other business and is rarely required to work for extra hours. This is not true for a junior employee. Since it is the top management

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Leadership Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 3

Leadership - Coursework Example He possessed appropriate personality traits and assumed his role as a leader effective. Jude is an honest man and would often correct me whenever I was wrong. His criticisms were always objective a feature that enhanced the success of his corrections. Additionally, he had the skill to delegate (Selznick, 1984). He often delegated some of his works to me thereby making me acquire both the skills and experience in performing various tasks including driving. Jude is humorous and a god communicator. Both traits make him a perfect leader who endeared to various people besides me. Among the trends in leadership that make Jude an effective leader are confidences, positive attitude and creativity (Maxwell, 2007). Jude has the creativity to work his way out of any problem and to solve any conflict. In doing these, he strives to maintain objectivity and minimize the harm that his actions may cause the parties involved. After criticizing an individual, he does not let the case affect his future relations with the

Monday, September 23, 2019

Capstone Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Capstone - Essay Example Some of them have also highlighted the cause of the US- Iraq war and related matters for initiating such terror attacks. India is reportedly known to produce more films relating to such matter compared to any other countries (Altheide, 135). The conveyed message clearly is same for these kinds of movies. Thus all individuals belonging to Islam religion should not be looked upon as terrorists and tortured or killed. The paper intends to support such an argument by making a thematic analysis of some of the well known Bollywood movies picturized upon portrayal of Islam in America after the 9/11 terror attacks. The violence and bloodshed associated with 9/11 terror attacks that caused the collapse of World Trade Center was so huge that many would find it really difficult to describe. Post 9/11 attacks Arabian nationality and Islam religion have become a historical phenomenon. Media particularly Bollywood cinema has always considered portrayal of Muslims as a topic of great interest. Usin g the mass influential power of media Bollywood has taken this opportunity to make cinemas representing the Islamic followers above the villains or ‘bad guys’ and has claimed for accepting the innocence of ordinary followers of Islam (Balraj). Some of the cinemas on such a theme are ‘My Name in Khan’, ‘New York’, ‘Kurbaan’ and ‘Tere Bin Laden’. Bollywood Cinema and Portrayal of Islam in America The movie ‘My Name Is Khan’ directed by Karan Johar is a story of a Muslim guy named Rizwan Khan who has experienced struggles right from his childhood for his disabilities and mainly because of his identity of following the Islam religion. His journey for meeting the president has been highlighted in the movie where he encounters misbehavior and strip checking on account of being a Muslim. ‘My Name is Khan and I am not a terrorist’ has been the tagline of the movie appealing to the Americans to accept the innocence of followers of Islam. The theme of acceptance of innocence for the Muslims has been established in this movie at the tremendous torture and losses that Islamic people have suffered post 9/11 terror attacks. The terror incident had developed a kind of hatred for the people with Islam religion but such an anti Muslim violence hurting hundreds of innocent people have been claimed as a complete senseless act (Dhume). The overreaction of the Americans after the 9/11 terror attacks has been shown in another Bollywood movie ‘New York’ released in 2009 under the banner of Yash Raj Films. The torture to the innocents simply because of being followers of Islam religion has been the base of the storyline. It is true that Americans after these terror attacks have haunted hundreds of Muslim lives in the name of investigation. The torture and misbehavior in jail that has been portrayed against Islam followers in this Bollywood is intolerable even on television screen. It is a tragedy that hundreds of innocent Muslim people actually tolerated all this during conviction. Bollywood cinema has been able to gather sympathy for the Muslim people through such touching and tragic movies. Mass opinion has been in favor of the fact that treatment of Islam and their followers after such terror attacks is a national shame for Americans. The movies highlighting the political views on terrorism

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Brand Journal Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Brand Journal - Research Paper Example This paper identifies the companies that my brand would like to partner with, and how it fits into the culture of these companies, and their brand positions. Evolution of the Brand: The first step in the evolution process is the determination of the brands core values and principles. For example, the brand managers of Hazwan must identify the various core values and principles of the company. For instance, the company believes in honesty, transparency and integrity while dealing with its customers. This is an aspect referred to as brand definition. Brand definition does not just involve the identification of the values and principles of the company; it also involves the identification of the products of the company. This is because brand managers cannot create a logo without identifying what the company produces. It is important to denote that logos represent the identity of a particular brand. Brand managers therefore must create logos that depict some aspects of transparency, integ rity and honesty. For instance, they can use the picture of a dove in their logo. A dove normally symbolizes purity, and these values of the company are elements of purity. Once the company has a logo, the next step is to introduce the logo to the partners of the business. This includes employees and its customers. The best method to use is the social media. The social media has millions and millions of users in a day. Posting the logo on the internet, and receiving feedbacks on its design is a sure way of building the brand name of the organization (Ferrara, 2012). This is because people will identify with the logo, and what it represents, as a result, identify with the company. Brand managers can also use the print media and the television to advertise their new logo. The print media has the capability of reaching a wide audience, and as such, the prospective customers of the organization might learn of its existence. Finally, the next procedure is to build relationships with the target market of its products. The brand managers will have to market the software product of Hazwan, and it can do this through the social media, the print media, televisions, and posters. Creating a relationship with the target market will also involve explaining how the software will satisfy the various needs of the organization. For example, Hazwan software’s enhance the speed of computers. It is important to denote that users are always motivated by the speed of the computers that they use. A computer which is fast will generate higher sales. On this basis, it is the interest of companies to generate high profits by increasing their market share. On this note, Hazwan software’s will satisfy such kind of need. The brand managers will therefore use this capability of the software, to create a positive relationship with its target customers. Short Term Achievements: One of the short term goals of the Hazwan brand is to attract highly talented computer programmers and software developers to work in the organization. The company aims to achieve this objective by offering high remuneration packages, amongst other benefits. This benefit includes housing allowances, transportation allowance, and an option to develop further their skills by improving on their academic and professional qualification (Ferrara, 2012). These measures will not only attract some of the best computer

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Algal Bio-Diesel Power Plant Essay Example for Free

Algal Bio-Diesel Power Plant Essay Algae- most promising alternative renewable energy source available. It decreases the need for fossil fuels and thus makes our environment healthier. Algae oil is produced as much faster as 30 times than other biomass feedstock while its producing amount is up to 300 times more resulting 600 tons of bio-diesel per day which will produce 200MW of electricity per hour. MAJOR COMPONENTS IN ALGAE BIO-DIESEL POWER PLANT: 1. Algae plantation 2. Algae oil extraction and bio-diesel plant 3. Internal combustion power plant Continuous Algae production utilizing the photobioreactors is a highly reliable method for producing high density monocultures of marine and fresh water algae. The total control of all parameters are automatically controlled via a PLC, making the device dramatically reduce the labor requirements and eliminates handling problems. The photobioreactors work by recirculating algae, nutrients, water and CO2 through transparent tubes to maximize the amount of light reaching the algal cells, the short light field maximizes this process; thereby enhancing the photosynthesis process. There are two major types of extraction namely * Mechanical extraction * Chemical Extraction The chemical extraction methods for algae extraction is done mainly using Chemical Solvents such as Benzene, Hexane. Other chemical methods include soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid extraction. The mechanical extraction methods include the Ultrasonic Extraction. Internal combustion engines are constructed from one or more cylinders, each sealed at one end and open at the other, in which close fitting pistons can move up and down. The engine derives its power from the burning of a compressed air-fuel mixture in each of the cylinders in succession. The fuel is ignited when the piston is at the top of its stroke and the expansion of the burning gas drives the piston downwards. The reciprocating motion of the pistons is converted to rotary movement by a crankshaft which delivers motive power to the desired application, in this case a generator. Air or an air-fuel mixture is introduced into the cylinder when the piston is at its lowest point and a flywheel on the crankshaft provides the momentum to drive the piston upwards to compress it. The piston and connecting rod in a reciprocating engine form a large mass which is accelerated from zero to a very high speed and decelerated back to zero again with every revolution of the engine (100 times per second in an engine operating at 6000 rpm). This places immense forces on the moving parts of the engine. CONCLUSION: Therefore, based on the comparisons made over other power plants and the advantages of the algal biodiesel power plant, we conclude that algal biodiesel is one of the most promising green fuel because of its potential as a renewable and sustainable fuel source for the electric power generation.

Friday, September 20, 2019

The History of Labour Day

The History of Labour Day Originally called eight-hour day, labour day stands for the representation of the fight to shorten working hours in the nineteenth century which was a movement that forever changed working conditions deeply impacting on the lives of workers for the future to come. The original cause of eight-hour day (labour day) was the fight for 8 hours of rest and recreation to be given with 8 hours of work in an attempt to provide balance to workers between their work and personal lives as plead by the unionists who did not ask for extra money but rather more time which eventually lead to the 40-hour week known today. Over the years this historical occasion was formed into the national holiday we know as labour day. Australia and New Zealand were the first to successfully implement and provide rights of recreation and rest to its labourers, leading the world with Sydney at the labour movements core. Labour day and its creation all starting in the year 1855 as there was a great need present for stonemasons during great large scale building operations, provided by the influx of prosperity and wealth brought by the gold rush which meant large amounts of difficult labour for workers. During the construction of two structures which were identified as the church buildings of Holy Trinity Millers Point and the Mariners Church, workers participated in a construction standstill, hosting a 14 day strike in order to fight for balance in the work and personal lives of workers as they were most often expected to complete gruellingÂÂ   10 hours of work daily from Monday through to Friday and working a total of around 8 hours on Saturdays with an expected work week of around 58 hours per week of hard labo ur.ÂÂ   In order to celebrate the victory previously experienced by workers and promote its campaign established in 1871, a picnic and march was held each year during the first weekend of October. Although efforts for the reduction of work hours started in 1871 the first ever holiday for its commandment was held in 1855, organised by a Balmain member and unionist named Jacob Garrard who was described as a member of the salvation army since 1896 who had been an inspired and good willed Methodist (a Methodist is described as a member of a segment of the Christian church which is aimed at and notorious for protesting and standing up for what they believe.) Jacob Garrard is a prime example of missionary and Christian influence, in this instance responsible for the modern day labour movement. Despite the grave Christian influence in the formation of the eight-hour campaign this fact regularly overlooked in the modern era by historians and recent generation, a terrifying fact highlighted by the labour leader Kevin Rudd. Just as the Christians and missionaries responsible for the creation of the eight-hour day grave concerns are raised regarding the work hours of todays society as well through the raising of awareness and protection of those who may be venerable. Recent concerning statistics regarding modern labour highlighted the facts that over 60% of people start their jobs before 8am and end their shifts after 6pm during the workdays with 30% of Australias population spending time at their workplace on the weekends. Just as the workers protested for during the average of 22% of Australias population work more than 50 hours per week. The fight for a fair balance of work and free time has resurfaced with families working longer and more unpredictable and what is described as unsocial hours with subsequently less and less personal time away from work. Reasonings of large amounts of labour performed by workers can be categorised into sections of those who are passionate about their career who often struggle to balance their time spent at work and time they have for necessities such as socialising or much needed rest which commonly leads to irregular work and rest patterns. Included in the list of people who are overworked are those who invest heavily in the improvement of their position and the progression of their workplace who without provided rest and recreation time would over work themselves and once again over look their personal time and vital time to rest.ÂÂ   The other demographic of those who are over worked include those who have no other choice but require the financial aid of their profession, but due to the lack of personal time away from constant work provided by modern jobs. Modern work has been altered from the beliefs and rights fought for intensely throughout 1855. Recently workers, in order to receive an income labourers are forced to comply with their work hours as they cannot afford to be without a job, forced to work from early to late which dramatically impacts the social and personal lives of worker often causing adverse health effects and mental illnesses such as depression or anxiety. As listed perfectly in the holy bible those who work and are not draining to society are ones to be praised and encouraged. But it is important to remember that even God himself rested on the seventh day which truly is a sign of the importance of rest and time spent away from work which is portrait not only by the preachings of those fighting for fair work and rest times but through their actions as well.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Organizational Excellence and Leadership :: Business, Organizational Culture

Organizational culture is the key to organizational excellence and leadership is a function to create and manage culture (Chen 1992). Organizational researchers have become more aware of the importance of understanding and enhancing the cultural life of the institution. "This study is one of a group of companies with high-performance in North America, interest in organizational culture is an important element in organizational success. Tesluk et al (1997). Looking at the" soft "of the organization, the researchers claim that" the organizational culture may be suitable for a means to explore and understanding of life at work, and make them more humane and more pronounced (Tesluk et al, 1997), and the graves (1986) also stressed the importance of corporate culture, and the need for research strategies and methods of investigating the various elements and processes of the organizational culture. He argued the culture that meets the basic needs of belonging and security in an attempt to describe this gathering that culture is "the only thing that distinguishes one company from another gives them coherence and self-confidence and rationalises the lives of those who work for it. Standard that may seem random, is to enhance the life to be different, and safe to be similar, and culture is a concept that provides the means to achieve this compromise (p. 157). Can the effects of cultural misunderstandings can be painful for the individuals, but also for the organization as a whole. Embarrassing situations and inadvertently insults, offenses and failure to achieve individual and organizational goals are among the consequences of the joint. Experience of many managers and researchers in the field of strategy, organization, and the development of the theory of the organization suggests all this ", the study of cultural issues at the organizational level is absolutely essential to a basic understanding of what goes on in organizations, and how it works, and how to improve" (Shin 1990). It was found that the organizational culture to influence the workers' commitment and identification with the group and organization, as well as their sense of involvement with their work tasks (Ruigrok, 1999). The issue of change and culture, and there is solid documentation that overlook the organizational culture and obstructing efforts to change the organizational performance. Study of past failures in development efforts points to the role of organizational culture as a crucial would consider the change (Souza, Bouza et.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

A New Species of Whale :: Anthropology Essays Paleontology Papers

Questions Surrounding a New Species of Whale During the month of September in 1998 an amazing and unique discovery was found by a group of scientists when they went out to the Sea of Japan. There, they collected the carcass of a medium sized baleen whale. This was the ninth specimen needed to complete the research on discovering this new species. This species of the baleen whale did resemble the fin whale, another species of the baleen whale. However, this carcass was much smaller in size. After comparing DNA data of the external morphology, osteology, and mitochondrial, scientists were able to classify all they found into a new and different species. This new species, which was named after a Japanese cetologist, H. Omura, has a unique cranial morphology and a small number of baleen plates. Another wonderful discovery was made while doing this research as well, that was that one of the species of baleen whale could actually be classified into two unique species, Eden’s whale and Bryde’s whale. There were thought to be only five species of the baleen whale. But after the new discovery was made the number had risen to eight. This finding, however, raises many questions about animal’s rights. In order for the scientists to get information on this new species they had to murder nine other whales, one ‘accidentally.’ This finding was a great feat for science because it is important to learn as much as we can about a species before they become extinct. The rate in which large aquatic mammals are reaching extinction has been rising. So although there is much to be found and much that has been found about not only the new species of the baleen whale, but also the other two species that have risen to the surface, it was not done without farthing along the extinction process of another species. The scientists claim that the research necessary to compile all the facts regarding the new species of whale did not start until a ninth whale was accidentally killed. However, there were eight other whales, five females and three males, whose death were not accidental. Who were killed for the sole purpose of scientific information. Whose species could all be in danger of extinction. This find was seen as extremely important and necessary because of the rate in which large mammals are becoming extinct.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

The Janjaweed of Darfur :: essays research papers

The millions of refugees due to violence in Sudan have been produced by the Janjaweed.The word Janjaweed is a term that is used to describe certain armed gunmen in Darfur. The word Janjaweed means 'a man with a gun on a horse'. The janjaweed are an army formed of men from tribes in Darfur and Chad that have become infamous due to their tendencies to be racist, rape, and massacre. The Janjaweed are a group who are against African farmers who have settled in Darfur.The janjaweed is made up of Sudanese and Chadian horse riding nomads. The janjaweed militias are known to attack in large numbers on camels and horseback. The janjaweed push people from their land, often towards town centers. The janjaweed have developed over the years, now having more sophisticated weapons but the same ideals. The janjaweed were first formed in 1988 after the Chadian president defeated the Libyan army. This ended territorial designs on Chad. By 2006 many Janjaweed have joined the Sudan Armed Forces. Many world leaders believe that the Janjaweed killings in Darfur are considered genocide. The janjaweed militia has killed about 450,000 civilians in the course of 3 years. The UN Security Council decided that they want the Janjaweed disarmed. Informally, the Janjaweed were created to run the non-Arabs out of the country. Janjaweed have also been known to steal cattle from non-Arab farms. The Janjaweed were a militia that was tolerated by the Sudanese government in the attempts to control land. It has been said that the Sudanese government formed the Janjaweed but they deny this, saying that they only formed self-defense armies after they were attacked. Although, the Sudanese government did in fact use the Janjaweed at one time or another to protect and serve Sudan. After the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) attacked the Sudanese government, they armed the Janjaweed and sent them to counterattack. The Janjaweed executed a ?scorched earth? attack meaning they destroyed everything useful to their enemy and killed many people.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Case Study of Carl Robins Essay

My consulting company has been hired by ABC, Inc. to evaluate some problems involving management. Once the analysis is complete it will identify and recommend ways to improve the hiring process of ABC, Inc. Carl Robins is a new campus recruiter who is on the fast track to success. However, as a new employee, he is not fully informed on processes of the company. From my analysis, I conclude that Carl Robins is not organized and did not assemble training plan for the new recruits. New employees can acquire a situation too deep and too fast. It takes at least six months to a year for someone in a new position to understand his or her role within a company. Carl Robins is doing too much too fast. A plan needs to be in place and reviewed before any new trainees were hired. Carl Robins, a new recruiter with ABC, Inc., has a dilemma. Because a training plan was not put in place and the proper research was not done, Carl runs the risk of an unsuccessful orientation. Carl’s position has the role of coordinating tasks and gathering information for new people coming to the company. If the process is unsuccessful, it will leave a bad impression with not only Monica Carrolls, Operations Supervisor, but the new trainees as well. As the coordinator, Carl has not put in the research required to obtain the information needed for the trainees. Several problems exist for Carl Robins. The first issue is that he is six months into his position and is not aware of certain policies and procedures within ABC, Inc. The second issue is that a training plan does not exist for Carl to follow to make sure trainees meet the requirements. In the workforce today it is important that everyone entering a new job receive all the required training that is needed to complete it in a professional and skilled manner. When Carl Robins decided to take on the position as a Campus Recruiter for ABC, Inc., Carl didn’t receive the proper training needed to accomplish his tasks. This error is placed upon the human resource department for ABC, Inc. Even though Carl knows a lot in this area, he should not receive any special treatment and still be shown the proper ways and steps to make, for this company, before planning a new hire orientation. ïÆ'ËœThe third issue is that by Carl being new to his position he did not do the research or ask questions on what needed to be done. He just assumed. An action plan or schedule should be active before the new trainees were hired. Carl did not prepare for the  orientation; he runs the risk of not possessing the space or materials to conduct the orientation. The fourth issue Carl is a procrastinator Carl could have prevented this problem by not being so negligent. One of Carl’s identifiable problems is his procrastination on finalizing the new trainee paperwork necessary to conduct the orientation. The sad truth is that most individuals are procrastinators. â€Å"Procrastination is the art of keeping up with yesterday†. Carl Robbins, procrastination is a major part of the failure of his recruitment of the new hires. Another factor that contributes to his failure is the lack of communication. When Monica contacted Carl about the training schedule he should have ask Monica about the steps of how ABC, Inc. proceed for training. ïÆ'ËœThe fifth issue is that Carl does not know how to plan and execute. Carl’s lack of planning and execution could imply that either Carl is not fully qualified, or as I mentioned earlier Carl needs more training. The sixth issue is Carl is lacking in his Time Management Skills.† Time is a commodity no individual can afford to l ose. The best way to reach a project deadline is to have a good time of objectives. ïÆ'ËœThe seventh and last issue is Communication. Lack of communication at any workplace makes for catastrophe. When lagging communication between departments and employees lags, the state of business suffer. The key to effective communication is being timely and relevant. There is an immediate lack of timely communication going on between Carl Robins and Monica Carrolls. Assumption is being made by Monica Carrolls that Carl Robins knows what he is doing, and the protocol that follows a new hire orientation is visible. New employees were hired in early April and not until the middle of May did Monica consult her new recruiter on the current status of the employees. This is over a month that critical follow-up was needed with the new campus recruiter. Perhaps if there was a set schedule in place that Carl was given as to a timetable, important records and documentation that needed to be completed would not have been overlooked. These documents are mandatory for an orientation to take place. Procrastination or a lack of clearly defined priorities may have been factors in why Carl waited until after Memorial Day to pull files and take a look at the new hires current status. This allowed only one week for odds and ends to be completed before the actual orientation was to take place on  June 15th of that month. My conclusion is that lack of planning skills and time management on behalf of the newly hired campus recruiter. My suggestion is in order to reduce or eradicate the problems identified in this case ABC, Inc., should provide everyone with a detailed outline of the hiring process and what the hiring process encompasses. After reviewing Carl Robins’ case, I have come to the conclusion that Carl has put himself in a situation where he will not be able to make a deadline he has set with the operations supervisor, Monica Carrolls. Carl will not be able to make the tight deadline due to all the problems he has been faced with. In order for Carl to become a successful employee for ABC, Inc., he will need to learn how to manage his time more efficiently and communicate better with his coworkers and the potential recruits. These types of problems Carl has been faced with can be overcome by managing time affectively and communicating with his supervisor and the new trainees about the policies and procedures of the company. Some alternatives that could have helped Carl are: The trainers files could be reviewed before the initiate hire date. Placed notes on files with any missing documents. Manuals should be reviewed every month. A system upgrade can be implemented. The drug screening can be scheduled after the first interview in order to have them completed in time for orientation. ABC, Inc., should have a centralized area for the necessary documents needed for orientation, so when new trainees are hired it would be available. My proposed solution is the following: Carl needs to find another room for training or to arrange a place outside the company to have the orientation. Call a local hotel where he can meet to conduct the new employee orientation. Reserve the room that Joe booked either in the AM or PM after the computer training class The missing applications and transcripts should not take long to complete. In the course of orientation, they can go over and complete. The orientation manuals need to be piece together into one, after this is done the manual needs to be revised and rewritten. The completed manuals than need to be copied either at the office copier or taken to the local Kinko’s office. Carl can  assign someone to call the Drug testing facility, and schedule five people per Day for three days or contact the recruits and send them to†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. and the company will have the results the same day. This will take care of the drug screening problems.

3m Optical

3M Optical Systems: Managing Corporate Entrepreneurship MST550 – Capstone Professor Jack Raiton HBSP Case #395-017 Discussion Questions 1. What practices make 3M such an innovative company? 2. What is Any Wong’s role as the OS Unit’s general manager? How effective has he been? 3. What is Paul Guehler’s role as division vicepresident? How effective has he been? 4. What should Andy Wong do with the computer screen AFE? If he gets the AFE, should Guehler fund it? Case Outline †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ †¢ The Situation Background of 3M Corporation Internal Context at 3M Corporation Background of Optical Systems (OS) The Product is Born The Product is Reborn Wong’s Options Guehler’s Options Wong’s Role/Effectiveness Guehler’s Role/Effectiveness Desimone’s Role The Situation The 3M Corporation’s Optical Systems (OS) business unit needs to decide if they should proceed wi th the deployment of a new computer privacy screen despite two previous marketing failures. Background of 3M Corporation 100 Years of Innovation Highly Diversified Global Company †¢ â€Å"High-Tech†: Spends twice the U. S. Industry Average on R&D (6-7% of sales) †¢ Strong emphasis on new products and technologies †¢ Fosters individual’s innovation within the workforce (â€Å"15% rule†) Internal Context at 3M Corporation †¢ Respect for the individual – â€Å"Stimulate ordinary people to produce extraordinary performance† †¢ Supportive policies/practices – 15% bootleg rule – â€Å"Make a little, sell a little† †¢ High standards, stretch objectives – 10% sales growth, 20% PBT, 27% ROCE – 30% sales from new products Internal Context at 3M Corporation†¦cont. †¢ Acceptance of â€Å"well-intentioned failure† †¢ Share/leverage resources – â€Å"Technology belongs to company† Background of Optical Systems (OS) †¢ OS Track Record (1979-1990) – Formed in 1979 through consolidation of several 3M optical technologies – Experienced 11 year microlouver development effort with minimal products – Lost between 3 to 5 million dollars per year – â€Å"Technology in Search of a Market† †¢ OS Changes Focus (1991-1992) – In 1990 new top management appointed – Focus on applications for technology The Product is Born †¢ In late 1990, the OS Team launched the computer privacy screen †¢ Product used â€Å"microlouver† technology to offer privacy of screen information †¢ By early 1991 the OS Team saw poor market reaction due to the large number of sizes needed and high purchase price †¢ Product was modified and re-launched in late 1991 with minor changes, but to no avail The Product is Re-Born †¢ Through prior-product analysis, market research, and harnessing some of 3Ms other technologies, a 3rd generation was created and readied for market in 1992. It combined features of competitor’s such as anti-glare, anti-static and anti-radiation †¢ Was ready for decision on â€Å"Authority to Proceed† Wong’s Options Go †¢Learning from two previous launches †¢Met rigorous threephase process †¢Team closest to market, competition, technology (trust them, don’t second-guess) †¢Committed team (motivational imp act) †¢Last chance for OS †¢Wong must be the champion Postpone/Cancel †¢Poor market research †¢Poor product concept †¢Price too high †¢Unrealistic market share forecasts †¢Unrealistic risk assessment †¢Needs more data, further study Other Options †¢Self fund †¢Mentor’s support †¢Outsource Guehler’s Options Approve †¢ Project passed three-phase review – Shouldn’t second-guess now Reject/Send Back †¢ Recognize as â€Å"well intentional failure† †¢ Has other high-profile â€Å"Pacing Projects† †¢ Problems with product, price, marketing strategy †¢ Lacks internal support †¢ Cost relatively low ($750K) †¢ OS unit believes, committed †¢ Don’t want to kill OS unit – Big project in pipeline (Needs 30% new products) Wong’s Role/Effectiveness †¢ Attracting good people – Noirjean, Melby Developing/motivating his team, building unit’s capabilities †¢ Creating, pursuing growth opportunities †¢ Keeping management â€Å"in the boat† Guehler’s Role/Effectiveness †¢ Empower frontline manager to find/develop attractive opportunities †¢ Coach/nurture/support fron tline managers to develop confidence and capabilities †¢ Set standards/goals for and develop selfdiscipline among frontline †¢ Balance between discipline and support Desimone’s Role †¢ Sets, communicates, monitors standards and objectives †¢ Protects, reinforces norms and values – Respect for individual Primary focus on organizational context more than strategic content

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Easy to Learn Essay

Here are some interesting stories for all the god’s fan†¦. 1.Sachin was given a pair of pads by his cricket hero Sunil Gavaskar when he was a schoolboy – and he made his Test debut for India against Pakistan aged just 16-years old in 1989 wearing those very pads†¦.. 2.Like loads of other cricketers, Sachin is pretty superstitious – he’ll always put on his left pad before his right whenever he’s getting padded up†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 3.â€Å"He hasn’t spent Diwali at home since we got married. But it really doesn’t matter that it’s Diwali†¦ any time he spends at home is great!† – Anjali, his wife, told once†¦ Once in a BBC interview when asked about his dream women, Sachin answered ‘my wife’ without batting an eyelid. 4.†He scored a fantastic 148 in Shane Warne’s debut Test in Sydney and then followed it up with another century at Perth, one of the toughest pitches in the world , where Indians have traditionally struggled. The value of his hundred increased because all the other Indian batsmen struggled. His weakness is the fact that he is so talented. His adrenaline pumps strongly when he walks out to bat with the noise of the crowds. You can’t hear yourself think with that noise. I would pay $1000 to watch Sachin bat. To score a 148 at Sydney – and that too when you are 18 — was out of the ordinary though the wicket was a lot like the ones you encounter in India, flat with lots of runs for the taking†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.† The above facts are told by Allan Border. 5.The entire cricket world is convinced of one thing : Sachin Ramesh Tendulkar is the world’s best batsman. Not just for his extraordinary skill, not just for his ability to tear even the most formidable of bowling attacks to shreds; but also for a rare never-say-die spirit, an insatiable hunger for runs and victory, a desire to dominate the opponent ; commitment, dedication †¦ These are what the little champion has built his reputation on. .. 6.Tendulkar was a person who would never show any disrespect to the national flag..He respects the national flag most and had even sought permission to use the tricolour on his helmet†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ It’s not the riches or the records but the love for the game that keeps the world’s richest cricketer going day after day. It is his hard work, determination, temperament & dedication for the country that keeps him charged†¦. 7.Tendulkar, now in his eighteenth year in international cricket says, †I still play†¦ because I still love the game.† †I would like to clarify this. It’s not about records. It’s all about loving the game and enjoying being out there in the middle. That is extremely special to me and far bigger than breaking records or creating new ones.† †Creating records happens after you’ve gone on the cricket field, but you’ve got to find a reason to go on the cricket field, and for me the reason is very clear.† †From the age of three I’ve loved this sport and I’ve never thought about scoring the most number of centuries or runs in international cricket. Everyone enjoys breaking records, I’m enjoying it too, but that is not the reason for playing cricket.† â€Å"Whatever level you reach, getting better never stops†-Sachin. Tendulkar said †When I started playing, I always wanted to be regarded as one of the best and the idea was that when I stopped playing, people would remember my name. Being regarded as one of the best players is always a good feeling, and that drives you, it refuels you completely. You want to be on top of your game all the time and push yourself harder and harder. There’s a huge responsibility and it is a great challenge. I love that,† he added†¦.. 8.Some quotes by GOD himself†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ My big sister gave it to me after returning from a trip to Kashmir, which is known for its high-quality willows. It wasn’t the best bat, but it was like a piece of gold to me. I used to imagine myself batting for India, hitting fours and sixes, the people cheering. I used that bat until it broke .. I was the only one supporting John McEnroe — everyone used to call me â€Å"Mac† because I styled myself on him. I made my father buy me the same headbands and sweatbands and even grew my hair long. You wouldn’t believe the pictures of me from that time. I was also extremely naughty. Very, very difficult to handle. †¦I had a nanny who used to run after me virtually 24 hours a day, because I never wanted to go home My father, who died in 1999, was never a cricket fan, not at all. He was a writer and a poet: he taught Marathi, my mother tongue, at the local university. But he understood exactly how to get the best out of me. He always encouraged me and told my mother that he had full faith in me. It was probably reverse psychology, but as I got older I felt like I could not misuse that trust. He warned me against taking short cuts and told me to just keep playing, despite the ups and downs. My parents taught me that it is important to live every day of your life with grace and honour.When it came to choosing between cricket and going to university, he said: â€Å"You can play cricket, I know that is your first love, so go for it.† Of course, my parents were extremely happy when I became the youngest player to play for India, at 16. .. Cricket is something very, very special to me. It has never been about owning this or that car and the other things that come with this life.. An obsession with money or worldly matters was always thumbed down. My only dream was to wear the Indian cap and the Indian colours. In that respect, my childhood dreams have come true†¦.. Having children brings back all my old childhood memories, wonderful years. Now, every minute is measured and calculated. I still dream — without dreams, life is flat, you stagnate. I don’t go to the temple every morning, but I do pray. I thank God for everything he has given me, because life has been very good to me. 9.Chappell should remember how Tendulkar has achieved his greatness and carried the weight of expectations of a billion people since the age of 16, Jadeja said. He added â€Å"When tendulkar enters the field, the crowd says-SACHIN! SACHIN! This is something what every cricketer wants†.. Sachin Tendulkar, the brightest star in the world of cricket has achieved his greatest prices with his intellectual and skilful cricketing brains.. SACHIN dreamt a world of superstars and great triumph and he achieved it.. At the age of 10 he walked to the field at 6 am with a cricket bag bigger than him for the practice. At the age of 11 he moved with his paternal uncle to get trained in cricket by the most renowned coach Ramakanth Achrekar. .. 10.Billions of hearts weep†¦..on the day when Sachin (GOD) retire. Indians wish that day never comes. It would be one of the most disappointing days of our life. Ever since Indians started watching cricket, it was Sachin, Sachin & only Sachin who made them feel cricket so special. Sachin is only responsible for making cricket a religion in India. They haven’t experienced watching cricket without Sachin. Whether he was injured/rested, there was always a ray of hope that he comes back to team soon. But after retirement, he will never be backing†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..If anyone wants to achieve anything in life, Sachin is the best example for them. I feel most people find it hard to digest that Sachin will no more be a part of Indian cricket†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.on that day, isn’t it? JUST imagine that day, when Sachin plays his last game. He comes to bat for the last time, and everybody in the stadium claps & the chants of SACHIN!!! came for the last time after he gets out, while walking back to the pavilion, the entire crowd gives him a stand awaition. Many of them will be in tears, millions of eyes wet watching their hero play for the last time. An era ends. The end of a legend came†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..The bond between every generation breaks. Would you miss Sachin a lot? I think most of people would say â€Å"YES†. The saddest day of Indian cricket- when genius retires†¦LOVE YOU SACHIN!!! 11.From the early 90s to the early years of the new millennium represented the decade of Brian Lara, Richardson, Martin Crowe, Steve and Mark Waugh, Mathew Hayden, Inzamam-ul-Haq, Gary Kirsten and Rahul Dravid. But there can be any doubt that the No.1 batsman in the world for a decade now has been Master Blaster, Sachin Tendulkar. . But figures, however important they may be, are something that Tendulkar’s achievement should not be measured by. He should be judged by the manner of his batting & that is what Bradman did. Symbolized by Sir Bradman naming him in his dream team of all time. The team in which Tendulkar is the only Indian player. He has scored runs on slow pitches of the subcontinent, fast tracks of West Indies, bouncy wickets in Australia and South Africa and in whirling conditions in New Zealand and England. The thought of having Tendulkar as an opponent gives bowlers bad dreams. No batsman has inflicted such psychological damage to bowlers at any time in the world like Tendulkar did to Shane Warne!!!(Warne said Tendulkar is my nightmare). His technique is so well organized that he is able to encounter any delivery with ease and comfort, giving the impression of having all the time in the world to play the stroke, the hallmark of the greatest of batsmen.

Saturday, September 14, 2019


The managerial grid model (1964), developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, is a behavioral leadership model. The model is an excellent way to map out different leadership styles, and an excellent way to evaluate the leadership performed by leaders and managers. This model identifies five different leadership styles based on the  concern for people  and theconcern for production. It is important to remember that none of the concerns are right or wrong, and the concerns are ideally balanced to the respective situational context of leadership. The model is graphically illustrated at the end of the article. Concern for People  relates to the degree to which a leader considers needs of employees and team members before deciding how to accomplish a task. A high degree of concern could be coupled to a more democratic leadership style, whereas a low concern for people could be coupled to an autocratic leadership style. * Concern for Production  relates to the degree to which a lead er emphasizes production effectiveness and efficiency when deciding how best to accomplish tasks. By charting the position in the grid it is possible to diagnose which leadership style is being performed, and to evaluate the appropriateness of the style of leadership.The five different leadership styles found in the managerial grid are presented below: Country Club Leadership – High Concern for People/Low Concern for Production   A country club leader is mostly concerned about the needs and feelings of his/her employees or team members. This leader probably supposes that members of the organization will work hard if the feel happy and secure. However, production may suffer under this leadership style, and the effectiveness of the organization may suffer due to a lack of direct supervision and control.Produce or Perish Leadership – High Concern for Production/Low Concern for People   A produce or perish leader is very concerned about production effectiveness, and pr obably sees workers as means to achieve great results. This leader also sees workforce needs as secondary to the need of a productive and efficient workplace. He/She might have very strict and autocratic work rules, and perhaps views punishment as the best motivational force. Impoverished Leadership – Low Concern for Production/ Low Concern for People   This leader is very ineffective.The leader has neither a high regard for creating efficient systems or rules to structure work processes, nor for creating a motivated or satisfied work environment. The result of this leadership style could be a highly disorganized workplace with low satisfaction and motivation. Middle of the Road Leadership – Medium Concern for Production/Medium Concern for People   This style tries to balance the two competing concerns. It tries to compromise different needs, and may seem as a great solution. However, when compromising, leaders risk that neither the concern for people nor the conce rn for production is fully met.This may lead to average performance, where top results may not be achieved. Workers may end up moderately motivated and satisfied, and production may only become moderately effective. Team Leadership – High Concern for Production/High Concern for People   According to the Blake Mouton model, this is the best and most effective leadership style. These leaders both stress the importance of workforce needs and production needs. This leader manages to engulf workers into the importance of production efficiency, and manages to motivate employees.This creates an atmosphere of team spirit, where each team member is highly motivated and satisfied, which commits the worker to work hard and increase productivity. Use of the managerial grid Firstly, leaders should plot their own style into the managerial grid, and diagnose which leadership style they are conducting. Secondly, leaders can evaluate their leadership style, and assess if they could improve their leadership style in some way. Thirdly, leaders should put their leadership style into the respective situational context, and try to balance their leadership style to the needs found in the organization.The team leadership style may not be best in all situations, and some situations, like e. g. and economic crisis, might call for an entirely different style like e. g. a produce or perish leadership style. Leaders must therefore analyze which leadership style is called for, and afterwards analyze whether or not they conduct the most appropriate style. This analysis is therefore based on the different contingencies facing an organization, and leaders may use the knowledge fromContingency Theory  or the  PESTEL Framework  to analyze which leadership styles are most appropriate for the viability of the organization.

Friday, September 13, 2019

Red tails movie Review Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Red tails - Movie Review Example This is a story of a young black pilot who overcame racism and hatred, managed to unite his brothers in blood and created the first ever air battalion composed entirely of African Americans. The directors of the movie did not dwell a lot, or put a stress on racial discrimination of those times. People know that it was there, but the spotlight is not put on this problems, the viewer just sees the life of ordinary people, their struggles, their fights. And exactly this makes this movie very remarkable, and helps the viewer see the problem deeper and live through it, in a way. The genre of the movie is action, but this is not just that. This is the story of friendship, self-sacrifice, and honor, as well as the ups and downs that the heroes of the movie are going through, when they do not feel like heroes at all. The pilots were not there for glory or fame, they had a job to do, they had to obey orders, and they did it. They fought for their countrymen and for their fellows. This is not the story of the World War II, or the glory of the America, this is a story of people, and this makes it closer and more understandable to each one in the audience. These pilots put up their lives for the country that considered them second-class citizens, and this is remarkable. The cast of the movie is outstanding. The spotlight is put on several major characters performed by Terrence Howard (as Colonel Bullard), Nate Parker (as Mary â€Å"Easy† Julian), Tristan Wilds (as Ray Junior Gannon), and some others. The actors managed to reflect the characters they were playing naturally and accurately. The big plus of the movie is that the cast and the director of the movie have worked closely with the original airmen, so they know the story firsthand. The characters of the movie have their share of differences, since they are all just humans, at the same time the viewer can feel the real spirit of brotherhood and camaraderie between the characters. There are

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Sources of English Law and Examples of their Use Essay

Sources of English Law and Examples of their Use - Essay Example Statute law represents the primary legislation passed by parliament and consist of acts, as well as amendments to acts. Common Law: Common law is a form of law that is not based on any external set of rules or regulations. Instead, common law is derived from previous cases. . By this part of its nature, common law is unique as it self-generates. These cases are often poorly documented and summarised, making the determination of what is common law difficult It is primarily used in cases where there is no legislation that covers the case currently being considered, and is instigated by judges, often in cases of negligence. Equity: Equity is connected to common law, and was formed to assist in cases where common law was not enough. Equity occurs when common law has been applied in a situation, but the ruling doesn’t appear to make sense for the particular criteria or people involved. Equity does not happen in all cases; instead it is an option that the judge can take, rather than a right of those under the law. Initially common law and equity used separate courts, but now both occur seamlessly within the same court, and often the same judgment within the UK as well as other countries and colonies. Injunctions are one example of equity. As such equity occurs in areas of the law where common law is applied, as there is limited legislative backing for the situation, but the conclusion from common law does not fit the situation. European Law: This refers specifically to law that is connected to the European Union, which came into being towards the end of 1993. When the UK joined the European Union it was required to incorporate legislation from the European Union into the laws of the UK and to recognise the European Court’s jurisdiction in regards to European Union law. An example of a European law is the European Convention of Human Rights, which was incorporated into UK law in 1998. European Law, while applied in the UK, is developed through the European Union . Question Two There are many legislative acts created through statute law that are important in Britain. One of these that had a large impact on business was the equality act, introduced by the Labour Government in 2010. The act was designed to dramatically increase the rights of employees of all types, aiming to advance equality and protect against discrimination. This law had a major effect on businesses, increasing costs involved in dealing with disabled employees, as well as allowing avenues for issues of harassment and discrimination in the workplace to be addressed, which generally has the effect of improv ing employee morale . The case of Donoghue v. Stevenson was a case brought to the House of Lords in 1932. The case is monumental, as it was a case of common law that set the precedent for negligence in modern English law, as well as Scottish law. The case itself revolved around a snail that Donoghue claimed was poured in her ginger beer. She consequently brought action against the manufacturer of the water in the ginger beer, Stevenson. The case was important as there was no legal precedent, so the case fell into the grounds of common law . For businesses today, the case has important ramifications, as it has served as the basis of the concept that one person is able to owe another person a duty of care. The case of Seager versus Copydex was a case of damages and of breaches of confidence. The case was one of the early cases that

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

University of Queensland Admissions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

University of Queensland Admissions - Essay Example In addition, as a third year student undertaking the real estate option, this is the opportune time for me to go on an exchange program to UQ because of the unique real estate classes like REDE3202 being offered that attracts considerable international investments. Furthermore, I will have the opportunity to learn and experience the upward swing of the current real estate curve in Australia. The benefits of taking the real estate and business classes abroad would be significant in the fact that I would be able to learn them in an English speaking global perspective, which is where I plan to utilize my real estate degree in the future. In addition to the business offerings, I can fulfill my required elective credits through the various unique and interesting UQ course offerings such as the marine biology of Australia. Overall, the University of Queensland offers the best academic environment and is the perfect fit to keep my academic progress in line. Professionally, University of Que ensland and Australia, in general, holds major opportunity for me to pursue international business connections and develop myself as a business executive. This is because I plan to immerse myself as much as possible into the business world to meet new people and develop connections, but most importantly to gain experience in an international business culture. I believe this global perspective will greatly enhance how I view and manage business and what I can apply back in my home country Canada.

Tuesday, September 10, 2019

NONE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 2

NONE - Essay Example The theory of conspicuous consumption is evident in the lives of very many people today. For instance, many renowned celebrities today such as rappers, singers, actors, sports personalities, deejays, and socialites among others are known to make a lot of money. These celebrities do not shy from spending their money lavishly in ways that are intended to provoke the envy of other members of the public just as stipulated in Veblen’s theory of conspicuous consumption. They simply do this as a means of displaying their superior socio-economic status and letting the world know that they are economically powerful. For example, popular celebrity actor Jennifer Aniston passed by a New York lighting store and spent $ 20,000 on lights for her mansion in Los Angeles. While in Paris, socialite Kim Kardashian spent more than $ 100,000 on buying less than seven handbags for herself. Victoria Beckham was also recorded as having spent more than $ 1.5 million on clothes, sunglasses, shoes and b ags. Other conspicuous spenders include Brad Pitt who spent more than $ 10,000 at once just buying boy’s clothes. The fact that the above mentioned celebrities go on these spending sprees conspicuously and end up attracting the attention of members of the public on their spending abilities proves that Veblen’s theory of conspicuous spending is still relevant today because it is evident in the spending habits of a group of people who wish to maintain a certain social status. According to Veblen’s theory, this social class of super rich people came into sight as an outcome of the accumulation of wealth during the Second Industrial Revolution. That is the same case with the people who conspicuously spend money on luxury items today. They usually accumulate their wealth through various ventures that they engage in. After accumulating their wealth, they apply it as a way of publicly displaying their social and economic power. This is

Monday, September 9, 2019

Leadership styles (research paper) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Leadership styles (research paper) - Essay Example The styles we evaluated were: Transformational leadership Transactional leadership Charismatic leadership Democratic/Participative leadership Lazier-fare leadership Bureaucratic leadership Autocratic leadership Task-oriented leadership The primary research consisted of me scouring for good resources and studies that would allow you guys to be able to make a good decision on what type of company you want to foster. Leadership styles affect so much more than just how we lead but also how our employees are developed and where we choose management from. When we look at it this way we can see that leadership style is one of the most important parts of management. I would be glad to discuss this report at your leisure. I appreciate the opportunity to be able to provide you with such a service and hope that it was as helpful as I wanted it to be. Respect, Research IAA:mef Contents Momo of Transmittal i Contents 0 Introduction/Problem 2 Findings/Leadership styles 2 Transformational leadershi p 3 Transactional leadership 3 Charismatic leadership 4 Democratic/participative leadership 4 Lazier-fare/Delegative leadership 4 Autocratic leadership 5 Bureaucratic leadership 5 Task-oriented leadership 6 Conclusion 6 Recommendation 6 Index 8 Introduction/Problem The performance and decisions made by staff in an organization are partially determined by the characteristics of leadership or those who participate in administration. Numerous studies have shown that the leadership style adopted in an organization affects group work processes, the social climate and the desired end result within the organization. From this perspective, the style of leadership adopted in an organization affects the climate and the climate affects productivity and creativity (Mills, 2007). In some cases, leadership affects productivity directly. This explains the fact that leadership style is critical to all organizations given that it affects their performance and effectiveness. This report briefly evalu ates various kinds of leadership styles described by different scholars. The report recommends that transformational form of leadership is the most effective while working with a diverse population. Findings/Leadership styles Different scholars have identified various forms of leadership that are common in organizations. This paper examines the following leadership styles: Transformational leadership Transactional leadership Charismatic leadership Democratic/Participative leadership Lazier-fare leadership Bureaucratic leadership Autocratic leadership Task-oriented leadership Fig 1: Leadership Styles (Source: Johannsen, 2012) Transformational leadership Transformational leadership is a leadership process in which leaders broaden and elevate the interests of their subordinates, they stimulate the subordinates to look beyond their own self-interest for the good of an organization and generate awareness and acceptance of the mission and purpose of an organization (Mills, 2007). This kin d of leadership helps to minimize employees’ turnover rate and hence, this save costs related to high turnover rate in an organization. Second, it empowers employees in an organization to realize their full potential and to show higher commitments to organizational goals; it can be classified under participative and delagative leadership as shown in fig 1. Third, this style is helpful in fostering organizational

Sunday, September 8, 2019

Management theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Management theory - Essay Example The research paper is designed to study the imperatives of fast changing perspectives in managerial leadership within an organization and to study its impact on the performance outcome of the employees and organization, as a whole. A medium size company ABC Corporation was taken up which is a pioneer in wireless broadband technologies and related products and services that have huge scope in the emerging market if tapped timely. In the current cut throat competitive business environment, Acme urgently needs to widen its market through strategic business partnerships with global business entities and venture capitalists that can facilitate market its products and services. The organization currently employs around fifty employees at various levels of administrative and non administrative posts. The employees come from different race, culture and color but are observed to work amicably. The company has a decent growth graph but needs to expand its areas of operation to maintain a competitive edge over its rivals. The research was focused on the managerial leadership of the organization and the organizational climate. The workforce along with their leaders are important part of the organization who work together to achieve their organizations’ goals and objectives. The research has made concerted efforts to study the organizational behavior and communication within the company and has studied in depth the impact of implementation of management theories, especially, McGregor’s theory of management. The changing times have made the businesses more competitive, thereby making it obligatory for them, as well as for the working force to become more flexible and swiftly adapt to the changing technologies and work environments. The changing socio-economic environment made it imperative that more consideration be paid to socio-cultural

Saturday, September 7, 2019

Visual Encoding Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Visual Encoding - Assignment Example For Acoustic encoding, students may not understand if the words are just read to them, they must be learnt how to spell them and how to pronounce them. For example, about 500 years ago, 'Protestantism' was declared to the religion of California. Now the students may not be able to even pronounce the word, leave alone understanding it. So getting their syllables right is the first basic thing. For Semantic encoding, students once they get to know how to pronounce them, they would be able to get the difference between similar sounded words. After getting the difference, the next thing is to understand the meaning of what is being said. For example, take the above word, though people get to know how to spell it, they must be thought on how to understand it. For that, a common language description of its meaning is must. In Californian history class, lot of things would be about artilleries that they used in warfare. A lot of descriptions would be about it. So, if students are given to experience the models of those artilleries physically, they will be able to understand the descriptions about it. This is tactile encoding.

Counselling Theories Essay Example for Free

Counselling Theories Essay I declare that this assessment is my own work, based on my own personal research/study . I also declare that this assessment, nor parts of it, has not been previously submitted for any other unit/module or course, and that I have not copied in part or whole or otherwise plagiarised the work of another student and/or persons. I have read the ACAP Student Plagiarism and Academic Misconduct Policy and understand its implications. I also declare, if this is a practical skills assessment, that a Client/Interviewee Consent Form has been read and signed by both parties, and where applicable parental consent has been obtained. 1. List three influences of the dysfunctional environment Lucy grew up in. How might these have affected Lucy as an adult? In the first example, the influence of Lucy’s father can be seen in the type of partners Lucy has chosen for her boyfriends. Lucy grew up with a father who had the disciplinary role in the family. Many of Lucy’s boyfriends have been violent towards her, she may be attracted to a partner who likes to be in control. This may be because, to her a man’s role is to dole out discipline. Lucy may be unconsciously choosing partners that model the same type of behaviour as her fathers. It would be interesting to know if many of them were also cold and distant towards her. In the second example, the influence of Lucy’s mother can be seen in how Lucy has also turned to alcohol to cope with her own depression. Lucy’s mother often found it hard to cope with life, especially when the children were younger. She allowed the eldest child Ted, to take on the responsibility of looking after the children when she felt too depressed or affected by alcohol to care. Lucy’s behaviour shows that she is finding it hard to manage her life, much like her mother did. She may be unconsciously modelling herself after her mother, in regards to how she copes with life and the issues that arise. Lucy may think of alcohol as a medication for her depression and anxiety, as she saw her mother use alcohol as a coping mechanism growing up. Lucy’s behaviour most strongly resembles her mothers, and I believe her mother has had the greatest influence and effect on Lucy as an adult. In the third example, the disruptive household Lucy grew up in has impacted on Lucy’s adult life. Firstly, in the first ten years of Lucy’s life, she was regularly exposed to her parent’s arguments and fighting. Lucy must have grown up feeling very uncertain and anxious about her life, without the nurturing support of her parents. Secondly, she must have grown up resenting her older brother for acting as a substitute parent towards her. 2. How might the sibling birth order have affected the eldest and the youngest children and how they respond to Lucy, even though they had similar modelling and reinforcement from their parents as children? Lucy’s eldest brother was the first born and often the first born child takes on the role of caretaker in a dysfunctional family unit. Ted has developed the typical characteristics of the first child in that he has taken on a leadership role within the family. Ted may feel more like Lucy’s father than her brother and this explains why he feels it is ok to voice his opinions about Lucy’s life. His role in the family has been to problem solve, so that the family functions as well as it can. Ted wants to help and care for Lucy, by offering his advice on how to solve her problems, but Lucy resents this as she sees Ted as her brother not a parental figure. Amy’s position in the birth order is the last child and so she has been sheltered from the early turmoil of the family. The last child is often protected from the reality of the dysfunctional state of the family. Amy has not had to deal with the type of problems the older two have, and does not have the same pressure that the other two have. Lucy feels that Amy does not try to control her, and so she relates better to her. 3. Suppose that Lucy’s broad goals for counselling are to stop abusing alcohol and stop repeating the pattern of abusive relationships. Outline a program of change for Lucy, including: a) Identifying the specific goals she might work towards. b) How you might apply and record reinforcement to help Lucy reach her goals? c) How you might help Lucy monitor any changes made? The specific goals that Lucy can work towards in counselling would be ‘to manage my alcohol consumption in a responsible way’ and ‘to choose a more suitable partner for a relationship’. In helping Lucy reach her goals I would encourage her to keep a diary of her behaviours and the feelings associated with these behaviours. For example Lucy could record how she is feeling the next day after drinking too much alcohol, and she could also record how she felt the next day after making the choice to abstain from drinking. She could then compare her feelings and hopefully she can find positive reinforcements to encourage her non drinking behaviour. Through keeping a diary it serves two purposes, firstly it helps Lucy identify her own successes and disappointments, and it will help clarify her own feelings  toward her drinking behaviour. Secondly it is a record that Lucy and I, as Lucy’s counsellor, can use as a reference to check on her progress in achieving the goals she has set for herself. The more the successes outweigh the disappointments the more likely Lucy will continue to modify her behaviour and improve her feelings towards herself. 4. Explain the concept of stimulus and response in counselling and describe how it might be useful in helping Lucy reach her goals. The concept of stimulus and response in counselling refers to the theory that a certain stimulus triggers a certain response in how we behave. The experiences we have (the stimulus) influences our behaviour (response). In Lucy’s case she has developed a dependence on alcohol as a response to her anxiety and depression. During our counselling I would help Lucy to recognise that she may be able to find other ways of responding to her anxiety and depression. Lucy has a learned response in regards to her feelings of anxiety and depression, which she learned from her mother. It would be beneficial for her to recognise that she can learn a new response to these issues. I would ask Lucy to think of other instances, where she has had success in overcoming an obstacle, has she tried other responses to her triggers. What has not worked in the past would also be helpful to know. 5. Explain the principles of negative and positive reinforcement and describe how they might be useful in helping Lucy reach her goals. The principles of negative and positive reinforcement are that the consequences of our behaviour is strengthened due to the type of reinforcer being used. Positive reinforcers are when we receive a pleasant consequence to a type of behaviour that encourages us to continue with that type of behaviour. Negative reinforcers are the same as positive reinforcers in the sense that we still receive the encouragement to continue with a type of behaviour but this time it is because we are avoiding an unpleasant outcome to the type of behaviour. An example for Lucy is her use of alcohol, negative reinforcement could be used to help her change her behaviour. In order for Lucy to stop abusing alcohol she needs to associate her drinking with the unpleasant outcomes of her behaviour. The use of alcohol is putting her at risk of losing her job, home and friendship. Negative reinforcement  could help Lucy recognise that by choosing to stay sober she will avoid the unpleasant consequences of putting her job, home and friendship at risk. Positive reinforcement could be used to help Lucy recognise that by choosing to stay sober, her work life will be more pleasant if her bosses notice she is showing up on time. Her home life will be more secure if she pays her rent. Her friendship will become stronger if she is seen to be working towards change. 6. Explain what is meant by negative punishment and negative reinforcement and suggest how these principles might have impacted on Lucy in the past. Negative punishment is when a particular pleasantry has been taken away as punishment for the type of behaviour being displayed. Negative reinforcement is when we stop or avoid a particular behaviour due to receiving a negative outcome to our behaviour. In Lucy’s case she has received a formal warning at her workplace, this means that she could be in danger of losing her job if she continues with this type of behaviour. She is also in danger of losing her home due to being behind in her rent, and losing her friendship with Jacquie who is her only real friend. These are all examples of the negative punishments Lucy has incurred due to her behaviour. During counselling it may be beneficial for Lucy to make the connection between her behaviour and the negative punishment she will receive as a result. Using negative reinforcements would help Lucy to avoid the behaviour, she can choose to avoid using alcohol as a way of avoiding the unpleasant outcomes this choice brings with it. 7. Explain how influences from environmental modelling in Lucy’s life as an adult could help or hinder her in reaching her goals. Helping Lucy to identify who her role models have been, and who they are now, will help Lucy have a better understanding of why she responds to certain situations in the way that she does. In the past I believe Lucy’s mother has been the most influential person in Lucy’s life. Lucy has grown up observing her mother’s behaviour, this type of modelling has taught Lucy how to respond to stressful situations. Identifying with new role models in her adult life, can help Lucy find other ways of responding to these same situations. I would encourage Lucy to think about the people in her life  now. Who does she admire, who stands out as someone she would like to be like? What type of person are they and how do they cope with life in stressful situations? By observing a different model and learning new responses to old stresses, Lucy can begin to see that there are many other ways that people respond to the stimulus in their lives.

Friday, September 6, 2019

Factors Affecting Women Shoppers Essay Example for Free

Factors Affecting Women Shoppers Essay Ministry of Women, Family and Community Development 3. 3 2013 Budget Presentation Speech by Malaysia Prime Minister. 3. 4 The Household Use of Internet Survey,2005 by Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commisions. | | | | | CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. 1Background of the Study The usage of Internet has grown rapidly over the past years and it has become a common means for delivering and trading information, services and goods. Nowadays, internet is not only a networking media, but it is also used as a means of transaction for consumers at global market. Women contribute the large number of Malaysia’s population. Major contribution of women to the nation always been recognized. With the increasing number of career women in Malaysia contribute further enhance of the purchasing power among women buyers. The existence of telecommunications equipment such as smart phones and tablets are not limiting time and place for them to be online. The roles of a shopper’s personal attitudes have been widely acknowledged in consumer decision-making and behavioral intentions (Wu, 2003). In particular, attitude serves as the bridge between consumers’ characteristics and the consumption that satisfies their needs (Armstrong amp; Kotler, 2003). Moreover, consumers’ characteristics, such as personality, as well as demographic and perception on online shopping benefits, have also been found to influence their online shopping behavior (Cheung amp; Lee, 2003). Thus, identifying the relative importance of each determinant of choice towards a given action could be a useful step in understanding such behavior occurs. The main aim of this study is to investigate purchasing intention of women shopper at Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP), with a particular emphasis on understanding and evaluating the factors which directly or indirectly influence their purchasing intentions by measuring the attitude towards online shopping. 1. 2Problem Statement Online shopping in Malaysia is a new technology breakthrough since it has just begun to assault the Malaysia retailing sector with the online shopping services (Haque et al. 2006). In order to increase online shopping in Malaysia, understanding consumer online shopping behavior and factors affecting this behavior when shopping online should be given priority. With the expansion of career women in Malaysia, women shoppers become one of the important market segments or two reasons; first, this group has money and shopping interest. According to Statistics on Women, Family and Community 2011, shows that number of female employed increased from 2000 until 2010. It shows that women in Malaysia have purchasing power (See Appendix 3. ). Second, this segment of the population has the potential of earning a greater income than other segments of the population. It will be great significance to find out the factors which influence women shoppers’ intention to shop online if we want to expand group of online buyers and the volume of e-commerce. According to to Statistics on Women, Family and Community 2011, Number of female enrollment in University is higher than ma le and the number keep increasing. In 2001, number of male enrollment student in University is 103,747 and female 142,242. In 2010, Number of male enrollment in University is 184,457 and female 278,323 (See Appendix 3. 2). The differences of student become bigger each year. The higher of education background can contribute to higher income in the future. Third, growth of online business keeps increasing. Recently, during the 2013 budget presentation by our Prime Minister has stated that; the Malaysia Government aware women not only important in a family, but also contribute to the development to the national economy. The government allocated 50 million to support women’s role. One of them is, Get Malaysia Business Online Program (GMBO) introduced to help 50 thousand small entrepreneurs, especially women to increase their online sales. Grants of thousand Ringgit Malaysia through the provision of 50 million Ringgit Malaysia by the Malaysian Communications and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) (See Appendix 3. 3). A mid-2005 survey by the Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Corporation (MCMC), only 9. 3% of Internet users had purchased products or services through the Internet during the preceding three months. Among those who did so, airline tickets were the most popular items (43. %) followed by books (15. 6%) and music (6. 8%). Amounts spent on these items were small, however, with 57. 7% of transactions worth less than M$500. Moreover, it is expected Malaysian online sales will increase every year at a high growth (See Appendix 3. 4). Opportunities of online shopping can be restricted by internal and external constraints on behavior. It is important in expl aining human behavior since an individual who has the intention of accomplishing a certain action may be unable to do so because her environment prevents the act from being performed. Moreover, there are some barriers which have contributed to the unwillingness of Malaysians to shop online because they afraid their personal information will be stole or misused by others. Despite the high potential of online shopping in Malaysia, there is still lack of understanding concerning the online shopping and its impact on marketing. Consequently a framework is needed to structure the complex system of effects of these different factors, and develop an in-depth understanding of consumers’ attitudes toward internet shopping and their intentions to shop online. 1. Objectives of the Research The objectives of this study are; 1. To determine women shoppers’ shopping attitudes towards website design. 2. To determine women shoppers’ shopping attitudes towards reliability of online retailer. 3. To determine women shoppers’ shopping attitudes towards online shopping customer service. 4. To determine women shoppers’ shopping attitudes towards trust on online retailer. 1. 4Scope of Study Literature Review Factors influencing online shopping intention toward online shopping have been researched and documented in the context of traditional consumer literature. A review of empirical studies in this area shows that the theories of Reasoned Action (Ajzen amp; Fishbein, 1975) and Acceptance Model (Davis, 1989) are among the most popular theories used to explain online shopping behavior. Therefore the theoretical framework f this study is based in these theories. Online Shopping Perceived Benefit Perceived benefits are advantageous results derived from attributes. The benefit can be physiological, psychological, sociological, or material in nature. Within the online shopping context, the consumers’ perceived benefits are the sum of online shopping advantages or satisfactions that meet their needs or wants. There are many differences between a physical store and its electronic counterpart. Most of the previous online shopping research has focused on identifying the attributes of online stores that promote success (Davis, 1989; Liu amp; Arnett, 2000). Previous studies of online shopping have established two categories of benefits; intrinsic and extrinsic. Both are important in customers’ selections to patronize the online stores. Extrinsic benefits include features such as wide selection of products, competitive pricing, easy access to information and low search costs. Intrinsic benefits include features such as design and color. Research Framework The key components of the research framework for consumer attitude towards online shopping can be seen in Figure 1. Website Design| | Online Shopping| Reliability| | | Customer Service| | | Trust| | | Hypotheses: A series of testable hypotheses were developed from the proposed research model, as shown below: Hypothesis 1: There is a significant relationship between web site design and online shopping. Hypothesis 2: There is a significant relationship between reliability of online retailer and online shopping. Hypothesis 3: There is a significant relationship between customer service and online shopping. Hypothesis 4: There is a significant relationship between trust on online retailer and online shopping. In general, base on the hypotheses, the research framework will be focusing on four factors as independent variables and propensity to shop online will be the dependent variable. . e. for the hypothesis 1, 2, 3 and 4 which are focusing on Web Site Design, Reliability, Customer Service, and Trust, it is hypothesize that there should be a positive relationship that would likely to influence the online shopping. Research Methodology To undertake this project, two types of data will be gathered. i. Secondary data This type of data will be used extensively in literature review to provide the framework of this study. Textbook, journals and internet shopping reports will be the sources of this desk research. ii. Primary data This type of data will be the main instrument used in evaluating the factors affecting women shoppers’ online shopping attitude and purchase intention. The process of gaining this input is discussed next. In doing so, the rest of this section organized into four main areas; the research design, the target population and the sample size, methods for data collection, and data analysis and interpretation. The research design In getting the shoppers data, I choose to employ descriptive research over exploratory or causal research. This type of research is suitable when a study intends to produce accurate description of variables relent to the decision being faced, without demonstrating that some relationship exists between variables. This description fits well with the objectives of this study. In addition, a cross sectional studies is elected over longitudinal studies. The former allow the researchers to assess to a larger number of customers, thus enabling them to produce a more representative data. Through this method, data is typically cross tabulated against each other to answer specific issues. This kind of data is meaningful to companies that appeal to many segments of the markets such as internet shopping. The target population and the sample size In line with the scope of the project, the population refers to the female employee of Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP). To further define the population, this study will only examine the behavior of women shoppers in the age bracket 20 to 55 years old. The sample elements will be chosen using systematic sampling. Within this pool of shoppers, a sample of 200 shoppers will be selected. This sample size is considered appropriate. Roscoe (1975) for instance stated ‘samples sizes larger than 30 and less than 500 samples are the appropriate for most research. Likewise, Sekaran (1994) agrees that 500 samples are the appropriate upper limit for the sample size. Methods for data collection Since cross sectional study has been chosen for this study, data will be collected through questioning. Using this method, the respondents will be identified systematically and to aid questioning the shoppers, a set of questionnaire will be designed. The questionnaires will be distributed through online and respondents will be invites through UMP Portal.